Variation is everywhere, but in the construction and analysis of customizable software it is paramount. In this context, there arises a need for variational data structures for efficiently representing and computing with related variants of an underlying data type. So far, variational data structures have been explored and developed ad hoc. This paper is a first attempt and a call to action for systematic and foundational research in this area. Research on variational data structures will benefit not only customizable software, but the many other application domains that must cope with variability. In this paper, we show how support for variation can be understood as a general and orthogonal property of data types, data structures, and algorithms. We begin a systematic exploration of basic variational data structures, exploring the tradeoffs between different implementations. Finally, we retrospectively analyze the design decisions in our own previous work where we have independently encountered problems requiring variational data structures.